IPO jargons

1) Greenshoe Option
Legally referred to as an over-allotment option, a provision contained in an underwriting agreement which gives the underwriter the right to sell investors more shares than originally planned by the issuer. This would normally be done if the demand for a security issue proves higher than expected.
A greenshoe option can provide additional price stability to a security issue, since the underwriter has the ability to increase supply and smooth out price fluctuations if demand surges too high.
Greenshoe options typically allow underwriters to sell up to 15% more shares than the original number set by the issuer, if demand conditions warrant such action. However, some issuers prefer not to include greenshoe options in their underwriting agreements under certain circumstances – for example, if the issuer wants to fund a specific project with a fixed amount of cost and does not want more capital than it originally sought.
The term is derived from the fact that the Green Shoe Company was the first to issue this type of option.

2) Red Herring
A preliminary registration statement that must be filed with the SEC describing a new issue of stock and the prospects of the issuing company.
There is no price or issue size stated in the red herring, and it is sometimes updated several times before being called the final prospectus. It is known as a red herring because it contains a passage in red that states the company is not attempting to sell its shares before the registration is approved by the SEC.

3) Underwriting
1. The process by which investment bankers raise investment capital from investors on behalf of corporations and governments that are issuing securities (both equity and debt).
2. The process of issuing insurance policies.
The word “underwriter” is said to have come from the practice of having each risk-taker write his or her name under the total amount of risk that he or she was willing to accept at a specified premium. In a way, this is still true today, as new issues are usually brought to market by an underwriting syndicate in which each firm takes the responsibility (and risk) of selling its specific allotment.

4) ADR
American Depositary Receipt. A negotiable certificate issued by a U.S. bank representing a specific number of shares of a foreign stock traded on a U.S. stock exchange. ADRs make it easier for Americans to invest in foreign companies, due to the widespread availability of dollar-denominated price information, lower transaction costs, and timely dividend distributions.

Let me know if I am missing anything.

I have found this correlation while studying the Companies
Perennial Market Leaders have:
• Economies of scale and cost advantages
• High switching costs
• Great management
• A strong brand name
• Superior technology

Tell-tale signs for red flags:
• Poor management history
• Shaky corporate governance
• Questionable accounting procedures
• A convoluted business plan
• Unreasonable option-based compensation plans.

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